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“ADR” or “Automatic Dialogue Replacement” or “Additional Dialogue Replacement.” Also known as “Looping.”

Used ubiquitously in film production today, ADR is the process of re-recording the original dialogue after filming for the purpose of obtaining a cleaner, more intelligible dialogue track or to fix or enhance dialogue.


“Audio Layback” or “Laying back to Video”

When we speak of laying back audio to your video, we are referring to the process of creating a final video in the target language, with the newly recorded voiceover embedded into it. This is part of post-production, and using our proprietary methods we are able to make sure that the new audio actually matches what is happening in the video, even if the engineer doing the layback does not speak the target language.



Dubbing is the post-production process of recording and replacing voices in a film or video subsequent to the original shooting. The term most commonly refers to the substitution of the voices of the actors shown on the screen by those of different performers, who may be speaking a different language.


“File Format” or “File Type”

The most commonly requested file formats for your voiceover deliverables are wav or mp3. Some IVR applications may require vox files. There are hundreds of formats available so if it's an unusual format, we may need to know what codec you are using in order to guarantee compatibility. Our default is to record and deliver your audio in video-compatible “wav 48 khz 16 bit mono format”, unless you specify otherwise. It is always possible to convert these high-quality audio files into any format you need after the fact.


“Lip-synch” or “Lip-sync”

A strict lip-sync is a style of dubbing in which the target language is translated meticulously and recorded to picture in order to match the lip movements of the original, on-screen speaker. This can be a very costly type of voiceover and is usually reserved only for high-budget projects. It usually requires that a translator, or a director who can act as a translator, be in the studio during the voiceover recording in the event that a line needs to be re-translated on the spot.


“One-Tier Translation”

A one-tiered translation entails only one round of translation, and leaves the editing to the client's team. Client-side changes may incur additional review charges to incorporate.

We recommend that all copy be reviewed by someone, and a high percentage of our work is two-tier. However, clients who have internal reviewers and in-language production capabilities may opt for the less expensive option.


“Phrase Match”

We use the term “phrase match” to refer to the style of dubbing in which the length of the target language recording matches exactly to the source language, but the lip movements are not expected to match precisely. This phrase match is achieved by a combination of a well-translated script, precise recording, and often some fancy editing. This type of dubbing is used frequently in corporate videos and e-learning as it is signifiantly more cost-effective than lip sync.


“Post Production”

Often referred to simply as “post,” the post production stage of a voiceover project occurs after the voiceover recording and basic editing is finished. This includes syncing, and laying back the newly recorded audio to your video. In post, we can artfully change the pitch of a voice, the duration of an utterance, or even creatively and seamlessly weave together new words or phrases that were not ever actually recorded, from bits and pieces that were! Our engineers are artists in their field and we enjoy the challenge of fixing the impossible and making our clients happy.



For our purposes, slating refers to reading each line or section number in English before recording that section. At your request, we may deliver one slated audio file for your team to edit as you see fit. If we perform additional editing such as cutting into individual files, we remove the slate during that stage.


“Source Language” and “Target Language”

Localization terms referring respectively to the original language of the script, audio or video and the new language version you are asking us to create.



Time code specifically for subtitles is called the Spotting. This is needed for proper creation of subtitles in another language.


“Standard Editing”

At Carasmatic Productions, the standard editing that is included with any voiceover production is removal of mistakes in the voiceover and any sound defects therein. Natural breaths may or may not be cut out, depending on the nature of the project. The deliverable is one useable audio file with all of your script recorded in order. Additional editing, such as minute removal of all breaths, cutting of the recorded voiceover into individually named audio files, adding music, sychronization or layback to video, carries an additional fee.



Subtitles are the text versions of the dialogue in a film or video. They can be in the source or the target language, and sometimes take the place of a voiceover. Because there is a limit to how many written characters the human eye can comfortably take in at a time, subtitles are almost always radically shortened to fit. Often thought to be less expensive than recording a voiceover, Carasmatic Productions can make voiceover an affordable and viable alternative to subtitles, not to mention much more effective!


“Synced Audio File”

An audio file in which the target language matches the length and sync points of the audio or video of the source language.


“Sync” or “Synchronization”

Matching the voiceover heard to the events seen in a video.


“Timed Recording”

The opposite of “wild” recording, a timed recording is when each line or section of the script has a defined time code or duration it must not exceed. Timed Recording is imperative for any video or commercial application in which the new voiceover must match the video, or fit into a predetermined length of a commercial or radio spot. This type of recording is more time-consuming in both the recording and editing stages, and usually prices higher than a wild recording for that reason. In order to record a voiceover to time efficiently, a properly time-coded script is imperative.


“Time Code”

For the purposes of translation and voiceover recording, “time code” refers to the explicit notation of the start time, end time, and often the duration of each individual line or section of a script. When localizing a video, we require a properly time-coded script to proceed. If this is not available, we will time code your script and charge you accordingly for this service. This should be done before the translation of your script. If you have already had your script translated, we will vet your script and check that it has been translated accurately for the timing of your video before recording, in order to save you from costly re-recording of your voiceover.



Transcription is the creation of a written document containing everything said, and who said it, in your audio or video source.


“Translation” and “Localization”

Translation is the process of creating a version of your script in another language. Translations are often “localized” for a specific target audience, matching the unique grammar and vocabulary requirements of that locale. A properly localized translation of English into Spanish would look very different if the target audience were Spain as opposed to Mexico, for example, even though both may be good Spanish translations.


“Two-Tier Translation”

A two-tiered translation is defined as a comprehensive translation done by a professional translator and subsequently edited and revised by a second translator to assure proper localization and accuracy. This ensures that the most up-to-date vocabulary is used, while making certain that the client’s original intent is conveyed. The two-tier process also includes one round of client-side changes.


“UN-Style Dubbing”

Refers to a style of dubbing in which the original audio track with the source-language voice remains, and the foreign-language voiceover is placed on top of the original, usually at a higher volume/level. The term comes from the style of interpreting that happens in the United Nations during which both the original speaker as well as the interpreter’s voices are heard simultaneously. In this style of dubbing, the target language utterances may exceed the length of the source language, as in actual UN-style interpreting.


“Voiceover” (also “voice over,” “vo,” “voice-over”) is often used as a catch-all phrase to refer to any and all different types of spoken audio recording. It refers to the disembodied voice that is heard in commercials, films, telephony and more.


“Wild” Recording is a voiceover that is recorded at a natural pace, without any timed parameters or matching the lengths of lines or sections to any other versions of the script, audio or video. Due to the fact that most translations from English to other languages expand in length when translated, this type of recording will mean that your new version will likely be longer than the original (source) version. For many applications, this is perfectly fine. Note: If your voiceover is for a video or any other application with timed parameters, editing of your video after the voiceover is recorded will probably be necessary in order to fit make the new voiceover fit. When versioning a commercial spot that must be :30 or :60, it is imperative that your translation be done properly to time, and vetted in advance of the voiceover recording, to make sure it will fit.


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